Here's a computer generated Babelfishtype translation..... so it's probably complete gobbledegook....but folk can get the gist me thinks.
"Brotherhood of La Sang, Llíria
The Franciscans of the convent of Llíria
"Drivers of the Brotherhood of the Blood?
Too often things are written about times past without a critical sense and that only a repetition-often plagiarized-from what others have written before. Studying historical societies is not a detailed description-sometimes tormenting-of events, buildings, characters and curious things considered, written in language that is indigestible heavy on the second line. The story is not to look barren and dry recreation of the past, but has to ask, interpret and reflect on past events to understand and help advance the process of knowledge of mankind.
Pardon the brief theoretical introduction, because I know that this book is not the most appropriate parties to make these reflections. But I consider necessary to understand what my attitude when modest attempt to study some aspects of the history of this town.
THE INHERITANCE OF FRANCISCAN
The history of recent centuries Llíria can not understand without understanding the influence exerted on the two llirianos installed Llíria mendicant orders in the second half of the sixteenth century. As you know, the Franciscans were first and then the Trinidadians who are temporarily placed in the "Font de Sant Vicent", "Fuente de San Vicente, during the second half of the sixteenth century. Later, already in the seventeenth century, they moved permanently to the gates of the town of Llíria. From the outset, the pastoral task of the religious began to influence social and religious life of those llirianos. This influence continues until the final secularization of the monks in 1835, is still present in the current Llíria walking towards the beginning of the third millennium.
Among the influences left by the Franciscan convents and Trinidadians have obviously disseminate their main avatars: "La Purisima" and "La Mare de Deu del Remei" with its corresponding Marian confraternities. Also worth noting the geographical division of people into two well-defined neighborhoods, "La Part de Dalt or Raval" and "Part of Baix," the top or Arrabal and bottom. But also the formation of two bands with the guilds that inherited the original spirit of rivalry that possessed the two mendicant convents. Ultimately the monks contributed to the embryo in Llíria exist in the future a kind of society from social anthropology semicomunal is called, which means divided into two opposing parties and rivals.
But in this book "Purissima" speak undoubtedly some influences only left us by the Franciscans. This order was one of the most influential in the medieval history of the Kingdom of Valencia. It was also the largest order in rural Spain. A popular saying sums up their strong presence:
"Qui per fra, qui per germa,
what is francisca tot mon.
"Whoever by friar, who by brother
everyone is a Franciscan "
Also, the city was richer, more Franciscans had. This is evident in the case of Llíria during the eighteenth century was a golden age for economic and population growth. However, in some years, and in 1870 the monastery came to have 82 Alcantarines religious and was considered one of the most important houses of the Franciscan province barefoot.
The first community of observant Franciscans who moved into the Fountain of St. Vincent was in 1562, on land ceded to them by the town. But 9 years later abandoned partly through unsafe place. In 1574 he held the Convento de San Vicente a new community of Franciscans, but this time the branch of the Alcantarines or barefoot. Eight years later he turned to leave, it seems that for the same reason than before. Already in 1603 finally found a community of Alcantarines inhabiting the new convent located just outside Llíria, on land also gave them the town. This attitude of municipal authorities was normal at that time, as the mendicant orders were the most requested by the people to pay them founded convents and spiritual services.
But let us now what interests us and talk about the influences exerted on the Franciscans Llíria City. In the book of festivals last year and I was able to write about the foundation of Confraternity of the Immaculate that established on December 8, 1664 in the parish of the Assumption. He commented that the fraternity was founded at a time of intense excitement and fervor immaculate in the various kingdoms of Spain, but also had to be mindful of the contribution and work of evangelization of the Franciscan convent of Llíria Alcantarines. In short, he ended by saying that the present Court of Mary can be considered the spiritual heir of that tradition llirianos immaculate emerged with the strength in times of Baroque.
The influence of Franciscan spirituality is also now observed in the presence of Calvary in Santa Barbara, built in the "Part Raval de Dalt or" zone of Alcantarines domain. Keep in mind that the Franciscan Order as we shall see later, was marked by the cult of painful Passion of Christ. The practice of ordeal was broadcast throughout Europe by the Franciscans, which since the thirteenth century were appointed custodians of the holy places of the Holy Land, by a bull from the year 1230 by Pope Gregory IX.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD OF THE BLOOD OF JESUS
Personally I think there's another major influence on the Franciscan llirianos that until now nobody had noticed I refer to the founding of a new brotherhood of penitents name of "Jesus Christ Sang" already existed in the year 1574 and that has reached today with the name Brotherhood of the Holy Blood of Jesus Christ, "Blessed Sang Confradia of Jesus Christ." My hypothesis is that this new Brotherhood of Blood, came as a result of the work of evangelization of the Observant Franciscans first installed in the Fuente de San Vicente. To detect this influence is not necessary that any ancient document certifying the quote, because if ever the case, everything would be too easy. Simply understanding the social context of the time, bearing in mind some dates, re-reading a document and knowing where he walked Franciscan spirituality, one can deduce that the Brotherhood of Blood, owes its existence to work early the Franciscans exercised over those llirianos the time of rebirth.
Reading a document of 1574 deposited in the Archives of the Kingdom of Valencia in 1973 and published in the book of Sang de Luis Marti, offered some suggestions for my thesis. To understand my approach, and then briefly summarize the information you provide the document dated April 15, 1574. At that time there was a brotherhood in Llíria paraded in the processions of Holy Week and it was called "Brotherhood of Jesus Christ," which had its head office in the building known as "House of Jesus Christ." This brotherhood was founded in 1401 and was legalized for all purposes, statutes and ordinances passed by the competent authority. The document, which as I said is dated 1574, says that since a few years ago existed in Llíria a group of young singles that were intended to publicly disciplined in the procession on Good Friday. These young penitents, self-called brotherhood of alleged Brotherhood of the Blood of Jesus Christ. But members of the old Confraternity of Jesus Christ, in contempt, refusing to exist in Liria a Brotherhood of Blood with Casa own statutes approved. The following document outlines a conflict between the House of Jesus Christ and assumptions Brethren of Blood, when the latter wanted to use the community center and site of the first exit to join the procession on Good Friday. Finally got the Blood to storm the headquarters of the House of Jesus Christ by using a counterfeit keys. This prompted a lawsuit brought to justice and that is reflected in the document named. In short, that document, what interests us are the following items hold:
- That a few years before in 1574 he formed a new group of Liria's mission penitents flagellating themselves participate in the procession on Good Friday.
- The members of this group of penitents recently proclaimed brotherhood of a new brotherhood with the title of the Blood of Jesus Christ.
- The components of the new Brotherhood of Blood, had no community center, or statute and therefore were not legalized.
- The Brethren of the Blood of Jesus Christ did not get along with other colleagues in the century-old brotherhood of Jesus Christ.
After having removed the paper from 1574 the most interesting, as it can advance the hypothesis that the formation of this group of penitents-base of the new Brotherhood of the Blood-emerge as a result of the work of evangelization, and in particular pious practices promulgated by the friars of the Franciscan convent of Observant installed on the Source of St. Vincent from 1562 to 1571. But the approach of this hypothesis must reinforce it with more arguments than are those who argue in the next point.
THE CULT OF THE ISSUES AND THE ROLE PASSIONIST of penitents.
First, keep in mind the primitive Passionist vocation of the Franciscan order. As I said before, the Franciscans, which since the thirteenth century were the guardians of the holy places in the Holy Land in a special way were characterized by a fervent cult taxed the painful passion of Jesus Christ, although this practice was common to all mendicant orders. I remember, for example, San Francisco intense identification with the Passion of Christ. One of the most popular passages in the life of San Francisco, is referring to the stigma, when the friar suffered in her own body the pain that Jesus felt at the crucifixion. This is one of the most typical images of the iconography of San Francisco and is represented at Mount Alverno with the five wounds of Christ crucified printed on the hands, feet and side. Popular devotion to the five wounds, was also released by the Franciscans of the thirteenth century with the support of various Popes who spent a day in the calendar, so that the Church will celebrate this devotion. Among the various devices used by the Brotherhood of the Blood of Llíria is the representation of the five wounds that already appear in old prints. Other times it represents San Francisco with a cross in the hand or kneeling before Christ on the cross and nailed an arm in an attempt to embrace him. The Passionist tradition of the Franciscans was seen during the second half of the fifteenth century in the interest shown in a special way to promote devotion to the Cross and Passion. Among the devotions Passionist who spread the mendicant orders and especially the Franciscans, began to excel in those days the cult of the Precious Blood of Jesus Christ. But the issue of the Blood of Christ had been previously doctrinal controversy between the Dominicans and the Franciscans. Previously, these two mendicant orders, also maintained on the theological controversy inmacularidad Mary. And now again we find the Franciscans and Dominicans left facing doctrinally on whether or not the Divine Blood of Christ shed on the Passion and separated from his body. The controversy ended with the intervention of Pope Pius II in 1464. Curiously, the Franciscans were the branch of the observant, the same as those installed in the convent of San Vicente, the most prominent defenders of the theme of the Blood of Christ and the followers of the mystical view of San Buenaventura, when he said in one of his books: "Wine is the image of blood removed from the cluster, ie the body of Christ, pressed by the Jews at the winepress of the Cross.
Needless to say, in the fifteenth century the attitude and mentality of man before his death had changed as a result of wars, plagues, and epidemics. Now death is conceived more dramatically, as the greatest human tragedy. The religiosity of this era was marked by a popular mysticism which sought to imitate Christ. There was widespread the cult of "Seven Words of Christ on the Cross", but also to the vessels of the cross as the nails and crown of thorns.
As a result of diffusion across the passion that we observed, from the sixteenth century began to rely (often with the support of the Franciscans) early confraternities of penitents in the Iberian Peninsula adopted the name Brotherhood of the Blood of Jesus Christ or also de la Vera Cruz and had the mission of public flogging practice regularly. It is true that during the fifteenth century and existed in some cities in mainland guilds with the name of Vera Cruz and Blood of Jesus Christ. However, following the work of American anthropologist William Chistian and other prestigious Spanish researchers, the formal establishment of confraternities of penitents with the name of Vera Cruz and Blood of Jesus Christ who had publicly lashed innovative mission in the Holy Week processions, no been documented in the Iberian Peninsula until the sixteenth century. Thus, the Brotherhood of the Blood of Jesus Christ of Valencia was established in 1535. Also during this century guilds are founded largely Blood Valencia city: the Alcoi formed in 1545, Cullera did in 1546, the de Sagunto know with certainty that operated in 1570. Other stocks that had been Denia, Pego, Enguera ... The de Requena was established in 1560 under the name "Vera Cruz or Blood of Christ our Lord." The one we have seen Llíria was founded a few years before 1574. It tells the eighteenth century Dominican historian Josep Teixidor, which, with both growing devotion to the Blood of Christ, they pleaded with Pope Paul III to Valencia instituted the Feast of the Blood, which was achieved in 1540.
Despite all this, some authors find the source of such fraternities in the period of the conquest of Catalonia and Aragon, and others-as thought in the eighteenth century scholar-Orellana back to the missions of San Vicente Ferrer. However, do agree that most current researchers is to consider the sixteenth century as the era of expanding Passionist confraternities of penitents. As regards the case of Llíria, is highly questionable to attribute the origin of the brotherhood of penitents of Blood to the time when St. Vincent visited our city back in 1410. The old fraternity of Jesus Christ founded the 1401 does not appear to practice public flogging and we have to move to the year 1574 to find Llíria the existence of the first Passionist brotherhood of penitents.
The practice of flogging as a secular discipline, not monastic or ascetic, is much older than the time of St. Vincent, since 1258 was diffused from Perugia (Italy) to much of Europe. During the fourteenth and fifteenth century in Spain was celebrated flogging only on special occasions. Referring to the Crown of Aragon, there was already a tradition of penitents who made an appearance at times of major crises or during the preaching of St. Vincent Ferrer. For all that, King Juan I allowed the use of public flogging in 1394. The very popular sermons of St. Vincent fit frame them within a society facing a grave social crisis, economic and religious. So when the Dominican saint preached around everywhere, it was a crowd of penitents and flagellants, when they came to some people were accustomed to make processions in which flogged yelling "Mercy" and then St. Vincent preached. This had to happen in the summer of 1410 when the Dominican friar Llíria visited with the intention of moving in a procession of rogation to the dry fountain in order to bring out the water.
The new confraternities of penitents had significant success in the sixteenth century, to the point that flogging became an institution within these guilds. There was a parallel between the practice of flogging and the Passion of Christ. The penitents shed their blood in imitation of Christ and with intent to redeem their sins. The de Requena, for example, flagellation procession celebrating the night of Holy Thursday as follows: disciplining penitents marching, others impaled, and various ways of mortification, such as iron chains, ropes, hair shirts, etc ... "
But let us return to the thrust of this article and remember that the busiest period of the flagellants with the foundation of confraternities of penitents of the Blood of Jesus Christ, was in the sixteenth century, when it was founded in Llíria the new Brotherhood of Blood . The use of public flogging new brotherhoods involved in conducting such a break with previous practices of piety. For this reason the new lliriana Blood Brotherhood clashed violently with those of the Brotherhood of Jesus Christ because they both had a different vision of pious practices. The emergence of the Brotherhood of the Blood-social homeless in principle, statutes and approval confirms that officer was in a period of training. He was also a fraternity where members highlighted by youth, ie, the sector of the population more objective and more sensitive to innovations. And at that time the practice of flogging in the new brotherhoods passion was the fashion of the moment. Faced with this new attitude were members of the old Confraternity of Jesus Christ since 1401 live together peacefully in his home office. This was a brotherhood veteran of statutes and legalized by the competent authority, but a way of living and practicing different religious piety, if not opposed to the new style of public flogging. The success of the confraternities of penitents of the Blood of Jesus Christ made a rule that had many members, which would explain the force that would take the Blood of Llíria the detriment of the Brotherhood of Jesus Christ. Thus, the decline of the latter would be parallel to the vitality of the first, until it was time that the Brotherhood of Jesus disappeared. The Blood, by contrast, more and more fame, came to use social as the former parish house of St. Mary, to the extent that the guild gave him the temple its name and the church will be known as the Church of the Blood.
Ultimately, after the arguments that have been exposed, you can see more clearly that the 9 years that the Observant Franciscans lived in the convent of San Vicente was enough to spread the devotion in Llíria Passionist issues, and specifically to the Precious Blood of Jesus Christ that was fucking so hard at that time. There is therefore no coincidence that the Observant Franciscans, after 9 years of pastoral life Llíria 1571 and leave the guild was founded a few years before 1574.
Later, the chronicles of the monastery of San Miguel, we know that the devotees of the shrine maintained good relations with the penitents of Llíria. Every third Sunday of Lent the flagellants rose to San Miguel where they sang a Mass with sermon to Archangel. The devotees were also facilitated a series of remedies to cure them of wounds. Do not forget either the good relations existing between the devout and Franciscan spirituality both had a similar and a common project: to live in the ideal of evangelical poverty. Besides the devotees for some time belonged to the Third Order Franciscan and one of the practices of this institution was flogging the Sundays of Advent and Lent.
King Charles III (in the measures adopted by governments to reform the customs illustrated) prohibits the public flogging in 1777, but Pascual Madoz still gives us the news of the existence in Llíria in the early nineteenth century some flagellants since ancient time, every Thursday and Friday, rose to the hermitage of Santa Barbara where the presence of a large audience "were given lashes with iron discipline and a very sharp glass on his back, inflicting terrible injuries, from which sprang lots of blood. " This tradition tells us Madoz, who disappeared from the French war in 1809.
We could go deeper into the topic of penitents and the Brotherhood of Blood, but I prefer to dwell on everything in its origins and foundation, and do not want to tire or exhaust the patience of the reader. Because this article, which I acknowledge is too long, some may find it difficult to understand, but try to say things as clearly as possible to get an understanding the majority.
There will be opportunity at other times to continue talking about the strong influence of the Franciscans in the history of Llíria, because I think his presence is not valued enough in social and religious life of this town. In short, as we have noted throughout this article, the Franciscans not only influenced the devotion to the Immaculate and the existence of the Court of Mary, but also in other institutions which hitherto had not been appointed, as is For the Brotherhood of Blood, which even today enjoys popularity and is rooted in Llíria.
I would like this popular article has enabled them to better understand some aspects of the past Llíria Franciscan. Because everything is not well known can not be estimated and, furthermore, often correctly we must know the past to better understand the present world in which we live.