Very little is known about ancient celestial navigation, besides indisputable proof that it did, in fact, occur. It is worth noting, however, that the man who invented trigonometry and first scientifically catalogued the stars' positions was Hipparchus of Rhodes and that, in more than one ancient system of latitude and longitude, the meridians crossed at Rhodes..... The Rhodian navy displayed in a long and distinguished operational history an almost uncanny ability to function and maintain unit cohesion at night.
Agreed. Hipparchus and Rhodes is the likely origin of this device. The Antikythera shows signs of adaptation and repurposing of cogs used in it, so it was the result of an evolutionary process. There are other accounts of similar devices that are now lost but were seen by contemporaries.
There was no similar metal cog-wheeled device for 1,000 years until the advent of the first mechanical clock mechanisms that used metal cogs. The cogs in the Antikythera are fairly crudely cut though - the teeth are straight cut rather than curved to relieve the side pressure. An awesome and astonishing achievement all the same.
Travel and communication between the UK and Greece, Egypt and elsewhere was widespread in Bronze Age times, I think Robert Graves proved that beyond much doubt. Celestial navigation in the clearer skies of those days would have formed a big part of that ability.