Let me summarize what we have seen so far.
I have drawn a large X in Poussin’s painting, where the line diagonally downwards to the left passes through an X Castor is making with his legs. This line makes an angle with the vertical line Pollux is pointing to which is equal to the longitude of the star x Geminorum (114.7⁰). The line also passes through the upper arm (and the pollex) of the shepherd in red robes, which is where x Geminorum is located on Pollux in the chart for Gemini found in Bayer’s Uranometria
. The upper arm is also associated with Gemini in the “Zodiac Man”. The line in the large X going downward to the right separates “ARCADIA” into “ARCA” = ‘chest’ and “DIA” = ‘through’, and passes through the lock on a chest down in the right corner of the painting. I have interpreted this as telling us that the large X is the key to unlock the secrets hid in the painting. Drawn on a celestial globe with the vertical line aligned with the prime meridian, the X points out the constellations Gemini, Hercules and Cygnus.
In my last post we saw how the line downwards to the left points out ε Herculis, and that the painting contains clues inciting us to connect ε Herculis and ρ Cygni. When these stars are projected onto an earth globe, the line connecting them passes through Acadia, and close by Oak Island. If we correspondingly connect the E (the Latin equivalent to ε) and the R (the Latin equivalent to ρ) in the inscription in the painting by placing the R in “ARCADIA” in front of the E in “EGO” we get “ACADIA” and “REGO” which is Latin meaning ‘I guide’.
I ended my last post by arguing that the large X, by pointing to E and D, points to two other places where the R should be placed. Putting the R in front of the E gives us “RETINA”. Putting it in front of the D gives us “CARDIA”
“Retina” is a Latin word referring to one of the most important constituents of the eye (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina
). Cardia (Greek: καρδίᾳ) is the Greek word meaning ‘heart’ (http://tinyurl.com/cphcuje
), the etymological origin of English words like “cardiac” and “cardiology”.
Thus, both words refer to parts of the human body. In this post I will argue that “CARDIA” and “RETINA” refer to two specific stars in Gemini, and that the point also here is to direct us to Acadia and Oak Island.
We can first notice that the large X which pointed out where to put the R to get “CARDIA”, passes through the heart of three of the figures in the painting.
Notice next that the line pointing diagonally downwards to the left passes through the center of a heart shaped by Hercules’ clothes.
We have seen that the line diagonally upwards towards the right from the heart shape passes through the heart of Pollux (the shepherd in red). Taking a look at Bayer’s star chart for Gemini we can see that Pollux’ heart is covered by Castor’s upper arm.
Returning to the painting we see that the line directed upwards towards the left passes through Castor’s upper arm.
Now, if Castor is making an X with his legs, which letter is he making with his bent arm? I would say it has to be the letter U or V.
Going back to Bayer’s chart for Gemini we can see that no star is located exactly at Pollux’ heart, but that the star labeled u (u Geminorum) is the star that is closest. I therefore think that “CARDIA” refers to the star u Geminorum.
I will now present two more clues found in the painting confirming that “CARDIA” refers to u Geminorum.
According to Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, “Καρδία” is “used of the middle or central or inmost part of anything” (http://concordances.org/greek/2588.htm
). Notice now that while Pollux is pointing to the center of the circle I have drawn, he is touching the first letter of what has become “CARDIA”.
I think this is telling us that the center of the circle is representing the heart, and that this point is meant to correspond with the heart of Pollux in Gemini. (In my first post we saw that this point also represents one of the two centers of the earth, the North Pole)
“Pollux” and “Castor” refer both to a set of stars making up the twins called Gemini in the celestial sky, and to two specific stars in Gemini. These two stars represent the heads of “Castor” and “Pollux” in the first sense of these names. We can now notice that the relative position of the center of the circle in the painting, to the heads of Castor and Pollux is similar to the relative position of υ Geminorum to Castor and Pollux in Bayer’s chart for Gemini. Bayer’s chart represents Gemini as seen in the sky from earth, while the positions of Castor and Pollux in the painting represents how they appear when projected onto a globe, and is seen from outside, so we have to mirror the star chart from Uranometria
to see the similarity.
The next clue bringing us close to υ Geminorum takes as its starting point that Pollux (in red robes), while he is pointing to the center of the circle I have drawn, simultaneously is pointing at a vertical line on the tomb.
I think this vertical line represents a meridian going straight north, and that the meridian should be drawn from Pollux’ heart, represented by the center of the circle. If we do that on a celestial globe or in Google earth, we find that the point on the other side of the North Pole, with equal distance from the North Pole is located very close to Albireo, the beak of Cygnus. The image below is from Google earth (epoch 2000). The line through the North Pole connects Albireo and the point in Gemini with the same distance as Albireo from the North Pole, that is, with the same latitude as Albireo. (That Pollux is pointing to a line directing us to Albireo I have from Petter Amundsen).
The idea that the point Pollux is pointing to is connected to Albireo is strongly supported by the fact that Pollux is looking over his shoulder at the woman to the right, while he is pointing. Albireo is perhaps the most well-known double star in the celestial sky (See here: http://tinyurl.com/cx7yhk5
), and the colors of the woman’s robes correspond perfectly to the colors of the two stars making up Albireo, which are blue and yellow/orange. This is from http://astronomycentral.co.uk/
Given this match of colors, we can also notice that the colors of Castor’s and Pollux’ robes in the painting match the stars they represent: Castor is dressed in white and represents a white star while Pollux is dressed in red and represents an orange star: “While Castor is a white quadruple star with fairly close hot white components, Pollux is an orange-colored (spectral type K0IIIb) cool (4770° Kelvin) giant.” (http://astropixels.com/stars/Castor-01.html
So, what Pollux (the shepherd in red) is pointing to in Poussin’s painting, is the point corresponding to Albireo on the other side of the North Pole. The vertical line is the meridian we have to follow through the North Pole to reach Albireo, and Pollux is looking at the woman with the same colors as the double star Albireo to confirm this. We have already seen indications that the center of the x, where Pollux is pointing, represents υ Geminorum. We shall now see that υ Geminorum is the star in Gemini closest to the point corresponding to Albireo on the other side of the North Pole.
The table below gives the coordinates for Pollux, Castor, υ Geminorum, Albireo and the point opposite to Albireo.
How to get the Google coordinates is described in an earlier post. The second pair of coordinates in the column called “Rudolphine” are the coordinates found in the Rudolphine Tables
. Here are the ones for Gemini:
Below I have plotted the 1601 positions for Pollux, Castor, υ Geminorum and the point opposite to Albireo in Google Earth. The correct positions are marked with a red pin, and the position given in the Rudolphine Tables
are marked with a green pin. It is only for Pollux that the difference between these two is great enough to be visible here.
Below I have placed the point opposite to Albireo in Bayer’s chart based on the position relative to Castor and Pollux. We see that the point is close to Pollux’ heart, and that the star it is located closest to is υ Geminorum.
So far, I have established that Poussin by “CARDIA” is referring to the star υ Geminorum.